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Reaser, Jeffrey, and Benjamin Torbert. Morphosyntactic features of Bahamian English. In Bernd Kortmann, ed. Bahamian English. Williams eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In Kristen Denham and Anne Lobeck eds.
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Cambridge University Press. Dialect Diversity in the Classroom: Research and Development.
In Lindsey Benitz and Toni Cook eds. The Penn Working Papers in Linguistics, Philadelphia:University of Pennsylvania Press. Bahamian English: Morphology and Syntax. In Bernd Kortmann and Edgar W.
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Schneider eds. In Michael Aceto and Jeffrey P. Varieties of English Around the World G People Contact Us. The other—Social Context—expands out to the theoretical modelling of dynamic contexts within which such structures and systems arise and evolve. These include macrosocial e. The five chapters focusing on theoretical linguistics cover phonological theory, syntactic and semantic theory, corpus linguistics, typology and universals, and cognitive linguistics.
He goes on to illustrate, with the example of cross-varietal syllable structure cf. Wiltshire , this volume , how rich the diversity of substrates in WEs is for Optimality Theoretic analysis. He closes with a set of theoretical challenges raised by the analysis—both within phonology and at the interface with socio-history—that highlight the converse potential, namely of WEs data to push theory forward. Looking at phenomena in the area of verbal agreement, aspectual semantics, and nominal semantics from very different varieties of English Buckie, in Scotland, Singapore English, older English dialects, and Malaysian English , she shows the potential for such data to feed into distinct theoretical models, p.
Like Uffmann, her discussion shows the potential of strong theoretical grounding to unify apparently disparate phenomena across varieties under a single account.
The Mouton World Atlas of Variation in English
A contrasting approach to the study of syntactic variation is taken in corpus linguistics. WEs as a field has seen hugely more research conducted within this paradigm recently than in the paradigms reviewed by Fong and Uffmann, with corpus analysis becoming among the most mainstream methodologies in the field. One possible reason is of course the greater sensitivity to variation and heterogeneity that corpus analysis allows, but perhaps also its more descriptive nature, not always requiring analysts to commit to a single underlying theoretical claim.
The chapters by Uffmann and Fong, along with others in Part II , suggest that greater theoretical commitment may in fact be possible and productive.
By Keith Brown and Jim Miller
He highlights the different affordances and potential of these types of large data resources, both for fine analysis of linguistic variation and for higher order understandings of language ideologies, nonstandardness, globalization, and multilingualism. As with corpus linguistics, typology is another area that has seen considerable research activity in the arena of WEs in recent years.
Their discussion traverses an impressive range of variable grammatical phenomena, even mediating between long-standing tensions between formalist and functionalist views of structural variation. The final chapter on structural theoretical perspectives turns to a more interdisciplinary dimension of language structure, namely cognitive linguistics.
Looking at allophonic variation, the authors examine sociocultural meanings through conceptual metaphor research as well as cultural-keyword models, highlighting the centrality of differing cultural contexts, not just universals of human cognition, for understanding meaning.
They engage closely with the sociolinguistic literature on social meaning, a theme taken up in the second subsection of Part II of the collection. The second subsection, entitled Social Contexts, considers precisely this social, historical, and geographical embedding of WEs, reviewing the analytic potential of theoretical models of these wider processes.
The chapters in this subsection relate closely to p.
Mesthrie observes that the fields of Second Language Acquisition and WEs can benefit from one another in a specific way, the former acknowledging individual language transfer and contact effects of bilingualism in the latter, and the latter bringing a crucial dimension of socio-political and group dynamics, and socially meaningful acquisition to the former, which has typically been focused on generic individual learning.
Most important, he expertly outlines the shared but also divergent characteristics of creoles and New Englishes in contexts where both have co-developed historically. The multilingual contexts of almost all WEs raise these macro-social and historical contact questions, but they also challenge us with the micro-social question of how English sits alongside other languages in moment-to-moment interaction.
From the unusual viewpoint of the embedding of WE vernaculars at the community, individual, and interactional, the authors trace how the dynamics of relative prestige, stance, style, and identity give rise to new combinatorial practices, and ultimately—via convergence—to new language varieties. Sharma considers the degree to which WEs fit six core principles, even axioms, of sociolinguistic theory. Where they do not, she suggests that WEs create the scope for rethinking aspects of the model with the more comprehensive cultural range that WEs offer.
And where they do, she argues that these theoretical proposals can give better shape to interpretations of variation in WEs. Anderwald turns to the dialect typology of WEs. In a comprehensive overview of old and new approaches in the study of English variation, Anderwald highlights the importance of recent corpus work and historical sociolinguistic methods in pursuing questions of universals, diffusion, and modelling of fine-grained differences across grammars.
As a single p. She closes by considering further discourses and registers beyond conversational interaction that bear the hallmarks of their cultural contexts. The final two chapters in Part II both deal with the profound question of ideologies surrounding English in postcolonial regions. Phillipson and Skutnabb-Kangas focus resolutely on the dominance of English, its imperialist and linguicist antecedents, and the sometimes severe consequences for linguistic diversity.
Bhatt too invokes ideological processes in the legitimization and rationalization of powerful standard varieties, but focuses particularly on complex hybridity in linguistic practices as countervailing forces and questions a coercive model of language power. Part III — areal profiles —is an empirically oriented section that sets out in full detail the wealth of WEs phenomena across the globe. Importantly, however, these chapters keep the theoretical frames and challenges set out in Part II in sight in order to move towards broader generalizations and highlight the potential for pursuing particular theoretical questions.
Each chapter in Part III includes a concise socio-history of the region and a description of structure and variation in the English varieties present. Each chapter also explores more theoretically motivated questions such as descriptions of the substrate contexts that form the contact ecology, a consideration of shared and divergent linguistic features, and possible social or structural origins for these. Many of these comparative and more theoretical questions are taken up later in more detail in the case studies in Part IV. Corrigan focuses especially on Celtic Englishes and provides illuminating demographic evidence to assess the impact of migrants and population movement on the development of historical and contemporary dialects of English in the British Isles and Ireland, both in the Celtic regions and elsewhere.
While acknowledging that Caribbean Englishes and Creoles form a complex continuum, Lacoste focuses in her chapter on the standard and nonstandard varieties of English spoken in the Caribbean rather than the full continuum that includes English-based Creoles. He identifies a number of parallel developments in Australian and New Zealand English, including the introduction of the High Rise Terminal intonation pattern, but concludes that the major differences between these two recent varieties can be found at the level of the sound system. Grammatical and lexical differences are so far less apparent, but Bauer predicts that divergent developments will lead to further differentiation between Australian and New Zealand English in the future.
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The history and role of English in Asia is covered by two chapters. Both Gargesh and Sailaja and Lim emphasize the important role the multilingual context and diverse substrates have played in the development of Asian Englishes.
- Contact Mechanics: Proceedings of the 3rd Contact Mechanics International Symposium, Praia da Consolação, Peniche, Portugal, 17–21 June 2001.
- Quick Hits in Emergency Medicine.
- The Lesser-Known Varieties of English: An Introduction - Google книги;
- Englishes around the World.
- Qualitative Complexity: Ecology, Cognitive Processes and the Re-Emergence of Structures in Post-Humanist Social Theory (International Library of Sociology).
- Jacques Lacan.
Gargesh and Sailaja highlight the role of substrates for example in the development of the Indian English article system and the characteristic features of tag questions and question formation in general in South Asian Englishes, while Lim singles out tone and the development of tonal features in Southeast Asian Englishes as one of the most important ongoing changes in these New Englishes. These three chapters highlight the wide variety of roles and functions English has in different parts of Africa.
In East Africa, English has to compete with Kiswahili as the language of important national functions, as Schmied argues in his chapter. In the linguistically extremely diverse postcolonial Anglophone West Africa, however, the use of indigenous languages is restricted almost exclusively to home and informal settings, while English is the language used in official contexts and p.
According to van Rooy, there are clear indications of convergent developments in different varieties of South African English, which lead him to predict the emergence of a shared South African variety of English. The authors discuss a number of examples of enclave communities, including a case study of an Australian English enclave community in Paraguay, and argue that studies of language in isolation play an important role in the study of language obsolescence and death as well as the study of linguistic changes under contact conditions in general.
Jenkins surveys the relatively short history of empirical studies of English as a Lingua Franca ELF , and concludes that despite the rapidly growing field of empirical ELF research, a number of central theoretical issues still need to be resolved. For more details, please visit the ICE Gibraltar page on this site. I am very pleased to announce the launch of the ICE-Scotland project. Further details are available here. For more information, see the ICE Ireland page. Recent Publications. The following recent publications have made extensive use of ICE corpus materials:. Studies in English Language.
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Oxford: OUP. Cambridge: CUP. The full contents list is here. If you wish to download any of the tagged corpora, please send an email with the subject line "Tagged ICE Corpora". Your email should also indicate your academic affiliation. I will then get back to you with details of how to proceed. To obtain a copy of the corpus and Manual, please email.